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Glossary

Many words used in the claims are no longer in common use.

Where these words appear in the claims, they are highlighted with a grey background, and when you hover the mouse over the word, the definition pops up.

This is a list of all the words which are included in the glossary.

acre 220x22 yards; 0.4 hectare, 4000m²
adze carpenter's or cooper's tool, like an ax with the blade set at right angles to the handle and curving inwards towards it; used for cutting or slicing away the surface of wood.
aerophaine semi-transparent fabric of the nature of a thin crape.
alpaca umbrella umbrella made of alpaca (wool) weft and cotton warp.
alum whitish transparent mineral salt, crystalising in octahedrons, very astringent, used in dyeing, tawing skins, and medicine, also for sizing paper, and making materials fireproof; chemically a double sulphate of aluminuim and potasium.
antirinum formal name for the Snapdragon plant
antirrhinum formal name for the Snapdragon plant
aquafortis early scientific name for dilute nitric acid (HNO3), a powerful solvent and corrosive .
arbor vitae popular name of several evergreen shrubs of the genus Thuja.
arbor vital possibly Arbor Vitae: Popular name of several evergreen shrubs of the genus Thuja.
arbour framework that supports climbing plants.
ashlar squared block of building stone; masonry of such stones; a thin dressed rectangle of stone for facing wall. Also Ashler. (Also ashler).
auger carpenter's tool for boring holes in wood, etc., having a long pointed shank with a cutting edge and a screw point, and a handle fixed at right angles to the top of the shank, by means of which the tool is worked round with both hands [OED].
axletree fixed bar or beam of wood, etc., on the rounded ends of which the opposite wheels of a carriage revolve.
back saw saw (as a tenon saw) whose blade is stiffened by an added metallic back.
backer (occupation) - one who provides or works with backs or backing. Backmaker: A person who made 'backs', vats, tubs, a Cooper. Coal Backer: A person employed to carry the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons.
backsaw saw (as a tenon saw) whose blade is stiffened by an added metallic back.
bagatelle table game similar to bar billiards in which short cues are used to knock balls into holes that are guarded by wooden pegs; penalties are incurred if the pegs are knocked over.
barm yeast.
barn door fowls cock: the male of birds, particularly of gallinaceous or domestic fowls, which having no appropriate or distinctive name, are called dunghill fowls or barn-door fowls.
bath brick preparation of calcareous earth, in the form of a brick, used for cleaning knives, polished metal, etc.
batten sawed timbers about 7 by 2 1/2 inches and not less than 6 feet long.
baum barm - yeast.
bed tick case or cover containing feathers, flocks or the like. forming mattress or pillow, or, from 16th Century, applied to strong hard linen or cotton material for making such cases
bench plane joiner's plane for working on a flat surface.
besom implement for sweeping, usually made of a bunch of broom, heather, birch, or other twigs bound together round a handle; a broom [OED].
bill-head paper ruled for a tradesman's bills, having his name, etc., printed at the top. (Also billhead and bill head).
billycock hat colloquial term for a round low-crowned felt hat worn by men, and sometimes also by young women.
bitter herb British plant Erythraea Centaurium.
black lead colloquial term for plumbago or graphite, probably used as a lubricant.
blacklead colloquial term for plumbago or graphite, probably used as a lubricant.
blue starch blue powder used by laundresses.
blue vitriol sulphate of copper, a violet blue crystallized salt, used in electric batteries, calico printing, etc.
bodkin scissors scissors which have blades which are half-round in section
bone dust ground or pulverized bones, used as a fertilizer.
bosher vessel containing water for quenching heated blades.
bottle jack jack for roasting meat, shaped like a bottle.
box iron smoothing iron with a cavity to contain a heater.
brag (obselete) - large nail. (Also bragg).
britannia metal pewter alloy (of silvery appearance) used as base metal for silver-plated household goods and cutlery
britscha light, open wagon of Polish origin.
britschka llight, open wagon of Polish origin.
brouche obsolete form of brooch.
brussells carpet carpet with a strong linen warp and a heavy pile of colored woolen yarns drawn up in uncut loops to form a pattern.
buck knives buffalo horn scored in a certain way
buffet low stool; a footstool. Now only Scottish and Northern English dialect. In the 15th century described as a three-legged stool, but now denoting in north of England a low stool of any kind. (Also buffett).
calceolaria 'slipper-flower' or 'slipper-wort'; a genus of Scrophulariaceae, the flower of which has some resemblance to a broad-toed slipper. Native to S. America but cultivated in our gardens for the beauty of the flower.
calcined reduced to dry powder or ash by burning; subjected to the thorough action of fire; purged by fire.
calico plain white cloth made from cotton, but which receives distinctive names according to quality and use, as, super calicoes, shirting calicoes, unbleached calicoes, etc. (So called because first imported from Calicut, in the East Indies) Also: Cotton cloth printed with a figured pattern.
call bell bell for summoning attendance; a small stationary hand-bell for that purpose.
callis-sand fine white sand, originally imported from Calais, used for blotting ink, scouring, etc.[OED] (also calis sand)
camara membranous fruit or a hard durable timber
cambric handkerchiefs kind of fine white linen, originally made at Cambray in Flanders (also applied to an imitation made of hard-spun cotton yarn)
camera lucida instrument by which the rays of light from an object are reflected by a peculiarly-shaped prism, and produce an image on paper placed beneath the instrument, whilst the eye at the same time can see directly the pencil with which the image is being traced.
camwood small shrubby African tree with hard wood used as a dyewood yielding a red dye. Also known as Barwood.
cand name in some mining districts for Fluor spar.
candle box box for keeping candles.
candle boxes box for keeping candles.
cant dog stout lever with a sharp spike; used for handling logs.
canturbury bell flowering plant of the genus Campanula.
canturbury belle flowering plant of the genus Campanula.
carboy large globular glass bottle. (Also carby).
caster occupation - one who casts metal, a founder.
caster oil vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (or preferably castor seed as the castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is not member of the bean family). Castor oil and its derivatives have major applications in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold resistant plastics, waxes and polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals and perfumes.
chemise a garment for the upper body; especially a woman's loose-fitting undergarment or dress hanging straight from the shoulders. Often spelt 'chemize' in the Claims.
chenielle a kind of velvety cord, having short threads or fibres of silk and wool standing out at right angles from a core of thread or wire, like the hairs of a caterpillar; used in trimming and bordering dresses and furniture.
chenille a kind of velvety cord, having short threads or fibres of silk and wool standing out at right angles from a core of thread or wire, like the hairs of a caterpillar; used in trimming and bordering dresses and furniture.
chicory Chicory: 1. Perennial herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads. 2. The dried root of the chicory plant: used as a coffee substitute.
chiffonier chiffonier: A narrow high chest of drawers or bureau, often with a mirror attached. (Also cheffioneer)
chimney glass looking glass commonly placed over a chimney piece.
chinese yellow possibly Orpiment (arsenic trisulfide), a mineral which was 'ground, processed and used for centuries as a pigment in painting, being one of the few clear, bright yellow pigments available to artists up until the 19th century.' (Wikipedia). Orpiment is known as 'chinese yellow' in Italian. (Sebino Paints, Italy, www.sebinocolori.it)
chrome yellow brilliant yellow pigment, PbCrO4, used by painters.
clamb variant spelling of clamp
cleaded scaffold boards are cleaded, i.e., have metal attachments at each end.
coal chute coal-shute: (dialect) A coal-scuttle.
coal skip coal-scuttle.
coal vase fancy coal-box.
coalshoot coal-shute: (dialect) A coal-scuttle.
coburg thin fabric of worsted or cotton.
cocoa matting coco-nut Matting: Matting made of the fibre of the outer husk of the coco-nut.
cocus wood wood of small W Indian tree, also called Jamaica ebony, used by turners.
coffer dam chamber of a canal lock.
colza type of oil, hence colza lamp.
comfortable either a worsted covering for the wrist or a long woollen scarf worn round the neck in cold weather (comforter)
congou black tea from China.
coping highest or covering course of masonry in a wall, often with sloping edges to carry off water.
copperas green vitriol, or sulphate of iron; a green crystalline substance, of an astringent taste, used in making ink, in dyeing black, as a tonic in medicine, etc. It is made on a large scale by the oxidation of iron pyrites. Called also ferrous sulphate. Note: The term copperas was formerly synonymous with vitriol, and included the green, blue, and white vitriols, or the sulphates of iron, copper, and zinc [Websters].
cornice glass a cornice is any horizontal, molded or otherwise decorated projection which crowns or finishes the part to which it is affixed; as, the cornice of an order, pedestal, door, window, or house. Cornice here is probably the mantlepiece, also known as 'cornish' in South Yorkshire. (CD)
corve (a) large basket used in carrying or hoisting coal or ore. (b) A wooden frame, sled, or low-wheeled wagon, to convey coal or ore in the mines. Variant spelling of Corf. [Websters]
cotters pin, key, wedge or bolt which fits into a hole and fastens something in its place.
cramp portable tool or press with a movable part which can be screwed up so as to hold things together; esp. one used by joiners and others for pressing together two pieces of wood, etc. which are being joined.
crannelling small opening of hole, a cranny, crevice, chink.
cream of tatar potassium hydrogen tartrate, a derivative of tartaric acid. When added to water, a suspension results which serves to clean coins very well. The solution loosens surface dirt and grime on the coins. Then, the dirt can be wiped off quite easily.
creel wooden rack in which plates are put to dry.
crinoline wire wire used to make the hoops in crinoline skirts, the stiffened petticoats designed to support the skirts of a woman's dress
crokes possibly to do with Crocus - a red iron peroxide used in polishing.
cross cut crosscut Saw: A saw, the teeth of which are so set as to adapt it for sawing wood crosswise of the grain rather than lengthwise. (Also crosscut).
crown glass glass used for windows.
cruet frame frame for holding cruets. Cruet: A bottle or vessel; esp., a vial or small glass bottle for holding vinegar, oil, pepper, or the like, for the table. (Also formerly 'cruet-frame' (CD)).
cruet stand frame for holding cruets. Cruet: A bottle or vessel; esp., a vial or small glass bottle for holding vinegar, oil, pepper, or the like, for the table.
crust oil leather crust - the state of sheep or goat skins when merely tanned and left rough preparatory to being dyed or coloured.
curd soap hard, white and odourless soap, and is prepared without resin.
currier one who prepares tanned hides for use.
cwt hundredweight: 112lbs, 50kg
damask linen so woven that a pattern in produced by the different directions of the thread, without contrast of color. Also a heavy woolen or worsted stuff with a pattern woven in the same way as the linen damask; -- made for furniture covering and hangings.
dandy brush yard whalebone brush.
delf case case for displaying Delf or 'Delftware'.
Delf: (a) Pottery made at the city of Delft in Holland; hence: (b) Earthenware made in imitation of the above; any glazed earthenware made for table use, and the like. Also called Deflt or Delph. Reference to 'Delf Case' in Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights, chapter 6.
devisee person to whom property is devised by will.
devisus devise is the act of bequeathing.
diaper fabric (usually cotton or linen) with a distinctive woven pattern of small repeated figures.
dibble to make holes in (soil) with a pointed implement or to plant by means of a pointed implement.
dimity strong cotton fabric with a raised pattern; used for bedcovers and curtains.
dip (colloq.) a dipped candle.
dragoon variety of pidgeon, being a cross between a horseman and a tumbler. Also dragon.
dram shop bar of an inn or public house.
drift slightly tapered tool of steel for enlarging or shaping a hole in metal, by being forced or driven into or through it; a broach.
driving wheel wheel which communicates motion to one or more other wheels or machinery.
dutch oven tin screen for baking before an open fire or kitchen range.
earthing celery probaby a method of blanching the stems of celery whereby the base of the celery is 'earthed up', I.e. covered in earth to prevent sunlight reaching the stems. (CD)
eight day clock a clock that goes for 8 days without winding up.
epsom salt hydrated magnesium sulfate that is taken orally to treat heartburn and constipation and injected to prevent seizures.
fanny band leather belt working the fan which extracts dust from a grinding or buffing wheel
feather fern Spiraea Japonica.
fell monger remover of hair or wool from hides in leather making. [2] Dealer in hides and skins esp. sheep.
felloe exterior wooden rim, or a segment of the rim, of a wheel, supported by the spokes. Also spelt 'fellow'.
feme sole a merchant, a woman who uses a trade alone, or without her husband
fettler one who fettles, specifically in various trades... especially one who's business it is to clean machinery, engines, etc.
filbert tree the hazelnut.
flannel soft light woolen fabric; used for clothing.
fleam sharp instrument used for opening veins, lancing gums, etc.; a kind of lancet.
flitch side of an animal, now only of a hog, salted and cured; a side of bacon.
flour emery exceptionally fine powder containing rounded grains, graded by mixing the ground-up mineral emery with water and collecting only those particles that haven't settled out in 40 minutes.
fluke potatoes variety of kidney potatoes.
fluter one who makes grooves or flutings.
flyer maker possibly a maker of any number of mechnical contraptions that have a fast or regulated rotation, such as fly-wheels, roasting-jacks, parts of spinning machines, parts of bailing machines, etc.
forfars coarse, heavy description of linen cloth, made of unbleached flax (also forfas).
frame saw thin saw stretched in a frame to give it rigidity.
fuller's earth highly adsorbent claylike substance consisting of hydrated aluminum silicates, used predominantly in fulling woolen cloth, in talcum powders, as a filter, and as a catalyst.
fustian strong cotton and linen fabric with a slight nap.
gablock false spur or gaff, fitted on the heel of a gamecock.
gallop to boil quickly [OED]. Hence galloped beer - 'small beer for present drinking made by simple boiling, or, as it is called, galloping, small quantities of hops and malt together in a kettle.' (Forby, Vocabulary of East Anglia, 1825). Presumably the kettle used to make galloped beer.
galloper gallop: (dialect) To boil quickly. Hence galloped beer - 'small beer for present drinking made by simple boiling, or, as it is called, galloping, small quantities of hops and malt together in a kettle.' (Forby, Vocabulary of East Anglia, 1825). Presumably the kettle used to make galloped beer (CD).
ganister silicious stone, generally found in the strata above and adjacent to coal seams. It is used for mending roads, and, when ground, to make pots for melting steel.
gas fixture bracket or gaselier for gas, including burner and stopcock.
gas pendant gas-pipe suspended from the Ceiling and fitted with one or more burners.
gauger A measuring instrument. Guager and Gager are obsolete forms.
gavelock Gavlock or Gablock: A crowbar, a lever.
gavlock Gavlock or Gablock: A crowbar, a lever.
gig small two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage; with two seats and no hood.
gimlet A gimlet, that is, a boring tool. (Also gimblet).
gimp narrow ornamental fabric of silk, woolen, or cotton, often with a metallic wire, or sometimes a coarse cord, running through it; -- used as trimming for dresses, furniture, etc.
gingerette effervescing beverage resembling gingerade.
glass cloth cloth covered with powdered glass, used like sand-paper for smoothing or polishing.
gobbing (Coal-mining) - the action of packing an excavated space with waste rock; the material used for this.
goit watercoarse; any channel for water; a stream; a sluice (northern dialect).
gold bead snap possibly a clip-on earring.
gote (northern dialect) - a watercoarse; any channel for water; a stream; a sluice. Also Goit.
graining brush gapped paint brush approximately 4 inches wide, used to produce wood and other grained effects.
graining comb combs made of wood, metal, hard rubber, or plastic, or decorator's metal combs, used to produce grained effects.
grogram wheels awaiting definition
guager measuring instrument. Guager and Gager are obsolete forms.
gutta percha inspissated juice of various trees found chiefly in the Malaysian archipelago, now extensively used in the arts. (literally 'the gum of percha').
hacklings awaiting definition
hammerman hammerer, a smith.
hand glass (Horticultural) - a portable glass shade used for protecting or forcing a plant.
harbour Possibly - Arbour: A framework that supports climbing plants.
hards the coarse part of flax, tow, hards, oakum to calk ships.
hare's foot fern name of Davallia canariensis.
harmonium A musical instrument, resembling a small organ and especially designed for church music, in which the tones are produced by forcing air by means of a bellows so as to cause the vibration of free metallic reeds.
harrow heavy frame of timber (or iron) set with iron teeth or tines, which is dragged over ploughed land to break clods, pulverise and stir the soil, root up weeds, or cover in the seed. Sometimes made in two halves, and then locally called 'the harrows'.
hassock cushion for sitting by the fire.
hastener clothes horse; stand or screen for concentrating the heat of a fire.
heck can be the lower half of a door or a rack to hold fodder.
helve a shaft where the forging hammer head and hurst join.
hemp tall plant that yields fibres used in cordage.
hide serons awaiting definition
horehound labiate herb.
horsing (Cutlery trade) - the seat or saddle upon which the grinder sits astride while at work.
inverness cape kind of full sleeveless cape, fitting closely about the neck.
irish moss edible North Atlantic seaweed (Chondrus crispus) that yields a mucilaginous substance used medicinally and in preparing jellies. Also called carrageen.
isinglass can be either fish glue or mica.
island moss probably Iceland Moss - used amongst many other things as a cure for tuberculosis and as the source of a brown dye. (CD)
ivory black fine kind of animal charcoal prepared by calcining ivory or bones. When ground it is the chief ingredient of the ink used in copperplate printing.
jack measure drinking measure holding half a pint; also, one holding a quarter of a pint.
jamb upright consisting of a vertical side member of a door or window frame.
jeanette name of material closely resembling jean; a twilled cotton cloth.
jujube lozenge made of gum Arabic, gelatine etc flavoured with an imitation of the fruit.Also jujubo.
kali bushy plant of Old World salt marshes and sea beaches having prickly leaves; burned to produce a crude soda ash. Also known as 'glasswort'. [wordnet]
kip leather prepared from the skin of young or small cattle, intermediate in grade between calfskin and cowhide.
lading to throw in out. with a ladle or dipper; to dip; as, to lade water out of a tub, or into a cistern.
lading can small tin can containing 2/3 quarts used for taking hot water out of a boiler (common in Yorks)
lancewood tough elastic wood imported chiefly from the West Indies, used for carriage-shafts, fishing-rods, cabinet-work, etc.
landau four-wheeled covered vehicle, the top of which is divided into two sections which can be let down, or thrown back, in such a manner as to make an open carriage.
lb pound weight; 454g
leader probably a person who transported and sold coal. See 'Water Leader' in GenDocs Ranks, Professions, Occupations and Trades.
leaven substance which is added to dough to produce fermentation; specifically a quantity of fermenting dough reserved from a previous batch to be used for this purpose.
letter press weight to keep one or more letters in place.
letter presser weight to keep one or more letters in place.
lever watch watch having a vibrating lever to connect the action of the escape wheel with that of the balance.
likeness portrait.
lime blue blue pigment also called Blue Verditor. (CD) 'Its manufacture was a profitable byproduct and sideline for the metalindustry and indeed company's such as the Sheffield Smelting Company took up paint making in 1781.' (Cornell University Department of Preservation and Collection Maintenance)
lime burner one whose occupation it is to make lime by burning limestone.
lindsey orig. a textile material, woven from a mixture of wool and flax; now, a dress material of coarse inferior wool, woven upon a cotton warp.
linseed meal linseed cake reduced to powder. Linseed cake is the solid mass which remains when oil is expressed from flaxseed.
linsey-woolsey orig. a textile material, woven from a mixture of wool and flax; now, a dress material of coarse inferior wool, woven upon a cotton warp.
lint possibly a hardy vegetable or a flax vegetable.
llama fabric woven with metallic threads of silver or gold.
loaf sugar refined sugar that has been formed into a conical loaf in a mold.
logwood very hard brown to brownish-red heartwood of a logwood tree; used in preparing a purplish red dye.
loo table round table adapted for a circle of persons playing loo. Loo: An old game played with five, or three, cards dealt to each player from a full pack. When five cards are used the highest card is the knave of clubs or (if so agreed upon) the knave of trumps; (formerly called lanterloo).
lucifer mid-19th century brand name for friction matches. Also 'Lucifers'.
lustre possibly a light fitting, such as a chandelier.
maiden a wooden instrument consisting of a long handle with wooden feet, by means of which clothes are stirred about in a washing tub. (Also known as a Peggy, Posser or Posher) Maidening Tub: A deep vessel for washing clothes. (Also known as Maiden Pot, Maidening Pot or Peggy Tub) Poss: To push with the head as a claf does. Clothes in a maiden-pot are said to be possed about by an instrument called the peggy. (Also maidening and maidenpot).
manna sweet pale yellow or whitish concrete juice obtained from incisions in the bark of the Manna-ash, Fraxinus Ornus, chiefly in Calabria and Sicily; used in medicine as a gentle laxative. Also, a similar exudation made from other plants.
marine stores handlers of various goods.
mattock implement for digging and grubbing. The head has two long steel blades, one like an adz and the other like a narrow ax or the point of a pickax.
maul heavy long-handled hammer used to drive stakes or wedges.
meat jack machine or contrivance for turning a spit; a smoke jack, or kitchen jack.
merino soft woollen material resembling, but finer than, French cashmere, originally manufactured of merino wool, and later of a fine wool mixed with cotton; a dress made of this.
methylated spirits tthyl alcohol denatured with methyl alcohol to prevent its use as an alcoholic beverage.
mineral naptha one of several volatile inflammable liquids obtained by the distillation of certain carbonaceous materials and resembling the naphtha from petroleum; as, Boghead naphtha, from Boghead coal (obtained at Boghead, Scotland); crude naphtha, or light oil, from coal tar; wood naphtha, from wood, etc.This term was applied by the earlier chemical writers to a number of volatile, strong smelling, inflammable liquids, chiefly belonging to the ethers, as the sulphate, nitrate, or acetate of ethyl.
mineral yellow a pigment of inorganic, mineral and synthetic origin. It is made by mixing two parts of litergirio and one part of ammonia salts in water. It is then calcinated and grounded so as to obtain a basic oxichloride of lead. Discovered at the end of the eighteenth century, it is a colour with different tonality: soft, dark and orange.
mingle (of textile fabrics) - woven in mixed colours.
moiety a half, one of two equal parts, in legal or quasi-legal use.
moleskin any fabric having a thick soft shag, like the fur of a mole; esp., a kind of strong twilled fustian.
moreen thick woolen fabric, watered or with embossed figures; -- used in upholstery, for curtains, etc. [Webster]
moulding plane joiner's plane for making wooden mouldings. There are many varieties, including the 'round', the 'hollow', the 'ogee', etc.
mountain flax name for various plants; a) mill-mountain or fairy flax; b) the centaury, Erythraea Centaurium; c) Quaking-grass, Briza media; d) the corn spurry Spergula arvensis.
muffler anything used in muffling; esp., a scarf for protecting the head and neck in cold weather; a tippet.
musk name for various plants having a musky odour; short for musk-hyacinth, musk-mallow, okro, musk-tree; in England now chiefly applied to Mimulus moschatus = musk-plant.
centre of the wheel hub, also called nath or naf.
hole in the centre of a mill-stone, into which the grain is cast by the hopper.
o. g. plane An O.G. plane is an O.G. (or ogee) moulding plane, which cuts a groove in an ogee shape.
oil case (obsolete) - oil skin or oilcloth.
oil cloth canvas of various degrees of thickness, painted or coated with a preparation containing a drying oil, used for table-cloths, floor-cloths, etc.
oil stone a fine-grained whetstone lubricated with oil, used for fine sharpening.
oilcase (obsolete) oil skin or oilcloth.
oilcloth canvas of various degrees of thickness, painted or coated with a preparation containing a drying oil, used for table-cloths, floor-cloths, etc.
ormolu gilded bronze used in the decoration of furniture. Also spelt ormulu in claims.
oz ounce; 28g
pair cuts cuts is a timber carriage consisting of two pairs of wheels with a long pole as a coupling between them.
pale oil possibly linseed oil.
pancheon an earthenware vessel in which milk is placed for the rising of cream. (Also panshion and panshon.
patent leather varnished or lacquered leather, used for boots and shoes, and in carriage and harness work.
patten any one of various types of wooden-soled footwear, such as a sandal, shoe, or clog, worn to increase one's height or to keep one's feet out of the mud
pattie pan small metal receptacle for baking.
paviour someone who puts down paving or a rammer for setting paving stones.
pekoe tea superior kind of black tea.
peppermint volatile oil (oil of peppermint) distilled from the fresh herb; also, a well-known essence or spirit (essence of peppermint) obtained from it.
perch 1/40th rood; 5½ x 5½ yards
phaeton four-wheeled carriage (with or without a top), open, or having no side pieces, in front of the seat. It is drawn by one or two horses.
pickling spice ombination of spices usually including mustard seed, bay leaves, cinnamon, pepper, allspice, ginger, turmeric, and cardamom. Pickling spices are used primarily for pickling foods, but may also be used to season certain dishes.
picotee variety of carnation having petals of a light color variously dotted and spotted at the edges.
pilaster rectangular column that usually projects about a third of its width from the wall to which it is attached.
pinafore sleeveless dress resembling an apron; worn over other clothing.
pink roots name given to several plants of the caryophyllaceous genus Dianthus, and to their flowers, which are sometimes very fragrant and often double in cultivated varieties. The species are mostly perennial herbs, with opposite linear leaves, and handsome five-petaled flowers with a tubular calyx. Also pinks.
pipe clay fine white clay used in making tobacco pipes and pottery and in whitening leather.
pluck heart, liver, and lungs of an animal.
poloni Bologna sausage.
polypodia ferns.
poringer little bowl.
posher Maiden: A wooden instrument consisting of a long handle with wooden feet, by means of which clothes are stirred about in a washing tub. (Also known as a Peggy, Posser or Posher) Maidening Tub: A deep vessel for washing clothes. (Also known as Maiden Pot, Maidening Pot or Peggy Tub) Poss: To push with the head as a claf does. Clothes in a maiden-pot are said to be possed about by an instrument called the peggy.
posser Maiden: A wooden instrument consisting of a long handle with wooden feet, by means of which clothes are stirred about in a washing tub. (Also known as a Peggy, Posser or Posher) Maidening Tub: A deep vessel for washing clothes. (Also known as Maiden Pot, Maidening Pot or Peggy Tub) Poss: To push with the head as a claf does. Clothes in a maiden-pot are said to be possed about by an instrument called the peggy.
pot mould mould used in making crucibles for use in the crucible process. A crucible is a pot in which metals are melted. The crucibles are filled with solid metal and then put into crucible furnaces to heat and melt the metals.
powder blue powder used by laundresses.
preserving pan for boiling down jams, chutneys and other preserves. Traditionally wider at the top and tapering towards the bottom in order to help boil off the excess liquid without it bioling over. (CD)
prussian blue any one of several complex double cyanides of ferrous and ferric iron; specifically, a dark blue amorphous substance having a coppery luster, obtained by adding a solution of potassium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of potash) to a ferric salt. It is used in dyeing, in ink, etc. Called also Williamson's blue, insoluble Prussian blue, Berlin blue, etc.
puddler worker who treads clay for the crucibles with his feet. Has to be free of twigs.
pudlog [possibly putlog) - One of the short pieces of timber on which the planks forming the floor of a scaffold are laid, -- one end resting on the ledger of the scaffold, and the other in a hole left in the wall temporarily for the purpose. --Oxf. Gloss.
puller out man on the far side of a set of large rollers like a mangle (in a steel works) which rolls a bar of steel to the required thickness. [JC]
pyanot peony.
qtr quarter-hundredweight; 25lbs, 12.5kg
red deal Scots Pine. Deal: A measure of Timber.
red lead reddish oxide of lead (Pb3O4) used as a pigment in paints and in glass and ceramics.
retort vessel in which substances are subjected to distillation or decomposition by heat.
rimlock lock fastened to the face of a door, thus differing from a mortise lock.
rood ¼ acre
rose pink pigment of a rose color, made by dyeing chalk or whiting with a decoction of Brazil wood and alum; also, the color of the pigment.
rotten stone light stone found in the Peak; in its powdered state much used in the polishing of iron used in the manufacturies of Sheffield [Sheffield Glossary]
sad iron smoothing iron, properly a solid flat-iron, in contradistinction to a 'box-iron'.
salter large vessel in which flesh is salted.
sampler for demonstrating different embroidery patterns.
sarsparilla extract Sarsaparilla is a vine that bears roots with many useful properties. The main uses include the flavouring of beverages, and homeopathic medicine. Before treatment, the roots are bitter, sticky, and have no smell. Then they are dried and boiled in order to produce the extract.
satinturk trade term for superior quality of satinette.
scantling A small beam or piece of wood; spec. one less than five inches square. [OED]
screenings inferior grade of wheat.
scummer instrument for taking off scum; a skimmer.
selftip tip of the buffalo horn used as a handle.
senna dried leaflets of various species of cassia used as a cathartic or emetic.
sharps very coarse flour.
shear-legs device consisting of three poles of wood or iron bolted together at their upper ends and extended below, carrying tackle for raising heavy weights for machinery [JN]
show cards advertising placard; also, a card for displaying samples.
shumac preparation of the dried and chopped leaves and shoots of plants of the genius Rhus. Much used in tanning. Also used for dyeing and staining leather black.
side comb small, curved comb used to pin back the hair.
side slips sides of a fireplace, often tiled.
sinkstone dialect word for a stone basin or sink with a pipe connected for water escape.
sleck small coals.
slitting mill mill or machine by which iron bars or plates are slit into nail rods.
slopstone a stone bench in the kitchen with a shallow depression cut in the top and a waste-pipe set in the centre to drain the water outside.
smalt deep blue pigment or coloring material used in various arts. It is a vitreous substance made of cobalt, potash, and calcined quartz fused, and reduced to a powder.
snow ball tree guelder rose.
snuffless Snuffing: Trimming the end of the charred wick of a candle to prevent it from guttering and smoking. (CD) 'In l820 Cambacèrés found that a plaited wick resulted in a snuffless candle as the wick bent into the flame and was fully consumed. This discovery coincided with a new improved candle made of stearine, a constituent of tallow, which was developed by a French chemist Michel Chevreul, who separated fatty acids with a mixture of strong alkali into liquid and solid parts. Edward Price and Co., later Price's Patent Candle Company, further improved the candle by using a composite of refined tallow and coconut oil with the result that these 'composition' candles, which were hard and pure white, produced a bright flame without smell or smoke and furthermore were 'snuffless'.' (The National Trust - Lighting by Tallow Candles).
socket chisel wood chisel with a socket into which one puts a handle.
sol a drying chamber, i.e. for drying paper.
sough drain for water.
spandrel the almost triangular space between one side of the outer curve of an arch, a wall, and the ceiling or framework. Spandrel Wall: a wall built on the curve of an arch, filling in the spandrel.
spandril spandrel - the almost triangular space between one side of the outer curve of an arch, a wall, and the ceiling or framework. Spandrel Wall: a wall built on the curve of an arch, filling in the spandrel.
spanich juice Spanish Juice - licorice.
sparables small headless wedge shaped iron nail used in fixing shoe soles.
spell cutter plane for cutting off thin strips - spells or spills - for lighting fires etc.
spole Something to do with Cotton Mill machinery. “Then fly the spoles, the rapid axles glow; And slowly circumvolves the labouring wheel below.” Cromford Writers website
squill A European bulbous liliaceous plant (Urginea, formerly Scilla, maritima), of acrid, expectorant, diuretic, and emetic properties used in medicine. Called also sea onion. (Also squil).
st vitus's dance old fashioned term for Sydenham's Chorea. - Sydenham's Chorea - A form of Chorea chiefly affecting children, associated with rheumatic fever.
stench trap contrivance to prevent stench or foul air from rising from the openings of sewers, drains, etc. [Webster]
stillard balance consisting of a lever with unequal arms, which moves on a fulcrum, the article to be weighed is suspended from the shorter arm, and a counterpoise is caused to slide upon the longer arm until equilibrium is produced. It's place on the arm [which is notched or graduated] showing the weight.
stirrups any piece resembling in shape the stirrup of a saddle, and used as a support, clamp, etc.
stithy anvil (also stithey, stith, stiddy, stiddey, stidey)
stoop post; possibly a mile post or sign post, or can be used in mining and construction as a block fixed in.
striker forger's assistant or mate.
stubbing hack probably a garden implement for weeding. - Stub: To grub up by the roots; to extirpate; as, to stub up edible roots.
sumac preparation of the dried and chopped leaves and shoots of plants of the genius Rhus. Much used in tanning. Also used for dyeing and staining leather black [JN]
supl abbreviation for superficial, as in superficial feet - surface area, that is, square feet
swage tool used in bending or shaping cold metal OR a stamp or die for marking or shaping metal with a hammer [KL]
sweet briar Eurasian rose with prickly stems and fragrant leaves and bright pink flowers followed by scarlet hips.
sweet nitre (Spiritus aetheris nitrosi) an alcoholic solution of ethyl nitrate, aldehyde and other substances. A sedative, diuretic and diaphoretic in doses of 20-30 min.
sweet oil mild vegetable oil when used as food; especially olive or edible rape oil.
sweetbriar Eurasian rose with prickly stems and fragrant leaves and bright pink flowers followed by scarlet hips.
swill tub tub to hold swillings, or refuse of food, for pigs.
swingletree crossbar pivoted in the middle, to which the traces are attached in a horse-drawn cart or plough.
tapioca coarsely granular substance obtained by heating, and thus partly changing, the moistened starch obtained from the roots of the cassava. It is much used in puddings and as a thickening for soups.
tare weight of the wrapping, receptace or conveyance containing goods, which is deducted from the gross in order to ascertain the net weight
tea board board or tray for holding a tea set.
tenter Someone who tends to something, e.g. sheep or engine tenter.
ticking strong linen or cotton fabric used for mattress and pillow covers.
tierce measure of liquid capacity, equal to a third of a pipe, or 42 gallons (159 litres).
tilt large hammer used for forging (usually powered by steam or water).
tilt hammer large hammer used for forging (usually powered by steam or water).
tilter one who operates a tilt-hammer.
tincture of rhubarb medical preparation made from rhubarb, cardamom, glycerin, alcohol and water, and, according to King's American Dispensary of 1898, used as a 'purgative, stomachic, and tonic. It is principally used in flatulent colic, dyspepsia, constipation, and rarely in low forms of fever.'
topper top stone on a wall.
trammel instrument for describing ellipses.
transom horizontal crosspiece across a window or separating a door from a window over it.
treadle board mat or casing which activates a mechanism when stepped on or otherwise pressed.
tue iron metal nozzle protecting the pipe of the bellows where it enters the forger's hearth. Generally it is hollow, and cooled by a simple circulatory water system supplied by a tank or bosh. [Old Sheffield Trade Words]
umber natural brown earth containing ferric oxide and manganese oxides, used as pigment.
venetian red brownish red color, prepared from sulphate of iron; -- called also scarlet ochre.
verbena genus of herbaceous plants of which several species are extensively cultivated for the great beauty of their flowers.
victorine woman's fur tippet (cape, or scarflike garment for covering the neck, or the neck and shoulders, -- usually made of fur, cloth, or other warm material.)
victuals food for human beings, esp. when it is cooked or prepared for the table.
visite light cape or short cloak of silk or lace worn by women in summer.
warming pan long-handled covered pan holding live coals to warm a bed.
warve (obsolete) of wharve = whorl of spindle. To wharve = to turn.
weather glass early barometer with a pear-shaped bowl and long spout or tulle. 'Known by many names including the weather glass, storm glass, and water barometer, it offers an aid to simple weather forecasting by showing pressure changes as water rises or falls in its spout.' (The Weather Doctor Almanac 2004)
whiting chalk prepared in an impalpable powder by pulverizing and repeated washing, used as a pigment, as an ingredient in putty, for cleaning silver, etc.
windsor chair popular type of wooden chair constructed of turned (shaped on a lathe), slender spindles that are socketed into a solid, saddle-shaped wooden seat. Those spindles extending downward form the legs and those extending upward form the back and arm rests.
winter hedge West Yorkshire, south Lancashire, and Derbyshire dialect a clothes horse. (Etymology: so called in contrast to a hedge on which clothes are dried in summer).
worsted well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool which has been combed to lay the fibers parallel, used for carpets, cloth, hosiery, gloves, and the like.
wringing machine machine for pressing water out of anything, particularly from clothes after they have been washed.
x cut Crosscut Saw: A saw, the teeth of which are so set as to adapt it for sawing wood crosswise of the grain rather than lengthwise.
yellow ochre pigment consisting of a limonite mixed with clay and silica.
 
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