References

AJANGA, A ET AL. (2005). Schistosoma mansoni in pregnancy and associations with anaemia in northwest Tanzania. [online]. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol 100. Issue 1. Pp. 59-63.

 

AKANBI, O.M ET AL. (2010). Role of malaria induced oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy. [online]. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol 3. issue 3. Pp 211-214.

 

Al- MEKHLAFI, H.M.S ET AL. (2005). Protein- energy malnutrition and soil transmitted helminthiases among orang Asli children in Selangor, Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. vol 14. issue 2. Pp. 188- 194.

 

ASHLEY, E ET AL. (2006). Malaria. [online]. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol 4 issue 3-4. Pp. 159-173.

 

ASSIS, A.M.O ET AL (2004). Childhood stunting in Northeast Brazil: the role of Schistosoma mansoni infectionand inadequate dietary intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. vol 58. Pp. 1022- 1029.

 

BETHONY, J ET AL. (2006). Soil-transmittied helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol 367. issue 9251. Pp. 1521-1532.

 

BINKA ET AL. (1995). Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. [online]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 61. issue 4. Pp. 853-859.

 

BOTTONE, E.J. (2006). An Atlas of the Clinical Microbiology of Infectious Diseases: Volume 2-Viral, Fungal and Parasitic Agents. Taylor & Francis, Oxon.

 

BRIEND, A ET AL (1999). Ready-to-use therapeutic food for treatment of marasmus. [online]. The Lancet, vol 353. issue 9166. Pp. 1767-1768.

 

BREMAN, J.G; ALILIO, M.S & WHITE, N.J. (2007). Defining and Defeating the Intolerable Burden of Malaria 3. Progress and Perspective. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 77. issue 6. Pp. 1-2.

 

BROOKER, S ET AL. (2007). Age- related changes in hookworm infection, anaemia and iron deficiency in an area of high Necator americanus hookworm transmission in south-eastern Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. vol 101. issue 2. Pp. 146- 154

 

CAULFIELD, L. E; RICHARD, S.A and BLACK, R.E (2004). Under nutrition as an underlying cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old. [online]. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol 71. issue 2. Pp 55-63.

 

CHANG, K.H & STEVENSON, M. M. (2004). Malarial anaemia: mechanisms and implications of insufficient erythopoiesis during blood-stage malaria. International Journal of Parasitology, vol 34. issue 13-14. Pp. 1501- 1516.

 

CHITSULO, L ET AL. (2000). The global status of schistosomiasis and its control. Acta Tropica, vol 77. issue 1. Pp. 41-51

 

DESAI, M ET AL. (2007). Epidemiology and burden of malaria in pregnancy. [online]. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol 7. issue 2. Pp. 93-104.

 

FOO, L.C (1990). Hookworm infection and protein-energy malnutrition: transverse evidence from two Malaysian ecological groups. Tropical and Geographical Medicine. vol 42. issue 1. Pp. 8–12.

 

FRIEDMAN, J.F; KANZARIA, H.K and MCGARVEY, S.T. (2005). Human schistosomiasis and anemia: the relationship and potential mechanisms. Trends in Parasitology, vol 21. issue 8. Pp. 386-392.

 

GALAN, P ET AL. (1990). Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school age Congolese children during malarial attacks. Part 2: Impact of parasitic disease on vitamin A status. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. vol 60. issue 3. Pp. 224-228.

 

GARCIA, L.S (2010). Malaria. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. vol. 30. issue 1. Pp 93-129.

 

GIBNEY, M. J; LANHAM, S.A & CASSIDY, A (2009). Introduction to Human Nutrition. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

 

GIBSON, R.S & HUDDLE, J.M. (1998). Suboptimal zinc status in pregnant Malawian women: its association with low intakes of poorly available zinc, frequent reproductive cycling, and malaria. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. vol 67. issue 4. Pp. 702-709.

 

GREENWOOD, B. (2008). Progress in malaria control in endemic areas. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol 6. issue 4. Pp. 173- 176.

 

GRYSEELS, B ET AL. (2006). Human schistosomiasis. [online]. The Lancet, vol 368. issue 9541. Pp. 1106-1118.

 

HALL, A. (2007). Micronutrient supplements for children after deworming. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. vol. issue 4. Pp. 297-302.

 

HOTEZ, P. J ET AL. (2006). New technologies for the control of human hookworm infection. Trends in Parasitology, vol 22. issue 7. Pp. 327-331.

 

HOTEZ, P (2008). Hookworm and Poverty. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol 1136. Pp. 38- 44.

 

HOTEZ, P ET AL. (2007). Recent progress in integrated neglected tropical disease control. Trends in Parasitology, vol 23. issue 11. Pp. 511- 514.

 

HOTEZ, P ET AL. (2003). Progress in the development of a recombinant vaccine for human hookworm disease: The Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative. International Journal for Parasitology, vol 33. issue 11. Pp. 1245- 1258.

 

JARDIM- BOTELHO, A ET AL. (2008). Hookworm, Ascaris lumbticoides infection and polyparasiticm associated with poor cognitive function in brazilian schoolchildren. Tropical Medicine & International Health. vol 13. issue 8. Pp. 994- 1004.

 

JUKES, M.C ET AL. (2002). Heavy schistosomiasis associated with poor short-term memory and slower reaction times in Tanzanian schoolchildren. Tropical Medicine and International Health. vol 7. issue 2. Pp. 104- 117.

 

KABATEREINE, N.B ET AL. (2006). The control of schistosomiasis and soil- transmitted helminths in East Africa. Trends in Parasitology, vol 22. issue 7. Pp. 332- 339.

 

KIDANTO, H.L ET AL. (2009). Risks for preterm delivery and low birth weight are independently increased by severity of maternal anaemia. [online]. South African Medical Journal, vol 99. issue 2. Pp. 98- 102.

 

KEISER, J & UTZINGER, J. (2008). Efficacy of current drugs against soil- transmitted helminth infections: systematic review and meta- analysis. The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 23. issue 16. Pp. 1937- 1938.

 

LANSDOWN, R ET AL. (2002). Schsitosomiasis, helminth infection and health education in Tanzania: achieving behaviour change in primary schools. Health Education Research, vol 17. issue 4. Pp. 425-433.

 

LOUKAS, A ET AL. (2006). Hookworm vaccines: past, present, and future. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol 6. issue 11. Pp. 733-741.

 

LWAMBO, N.J ET AL. (1999). Patterns of concurrent hookworm infection and schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol 93. issue 5. Pp. 497- 502.

 

MCMANUS, D.P & LOUKAS, A. (2008). Current status of Vaccines for Schistosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol 21. issue 1. Pp. 225- 241.

 

MAITLAND, K & MARSH, K. (2004). Pathophysiology of sever malaria in children. Acta Tropica, vol 90. issue 2. Pp. 131- 140.

 

MASSA, K ET AL. (2009). The effect of the community- directed treatment approach versus the school-based treatment approach on the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren in Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol 103. issue 1. Pp. 31-37.

 

MAZENGO, M.C ET AL. (1997). Food consumption in rural and urban Tanzania. Acta Tropica, vol 68. issue 3. Pp. 313-326.

 

MAZIGO, H.D ET AL. (2010), Co-infections with Plasmodium Falciparum, Schistosoma mansoni and intestinal helminths among schoolchildren in endemic areas of northwestern Tanzania. [online]. Parasites & Vectors, vol 3. issue 44. Pp. 1-7.

 

NYAKERIGA, A.M ET AL. (2004). Malaria and nutritional status in children living on the coast of Kenya. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. vol 80. issue 6. Pp. 1604- 1610.

 

OBONYO, C.O ET AL (2007). In- Hospital Morbidity and Mortality Due to Severe Malarial Anemia in Western Kenya. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol 77. issue 6. Pp. 23- 28.

 

PRUAL, A ET AL. (1992). Consequences of Schistosoma haematobium infection on the iron status of schoolchildren in Niger. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol 47. issue 3. Pp. 291- 297.

 

SABIN VACCINE INSTITUTE. (2010). Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative Overview. [online]. Last accessed 10th July 2010 at: http://www.sabin.org

 

SHANKAR, A.H ET AL. (2000). The influence of zinc supplementation on morbidity due to Plasmodium falciparum: A randomized trail in preschool children in Papua New Guinea. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. vol 62. issue 6. Pp. 663-669.

 

STOLTZFUZ, R.J ET AL. (1997). Epidemiology of iron deficiency anemia in Zanzibari schoolchildren: the importance of hookworms. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. vol 65. issue 1. Pp. 153- 159.

 

STOLTZFUS, R & DREYFUS, M.L (1998). Guidelines for the use of iron supplements to prevent and treat iron deficiency anemia. [online]. Last accessed 30th July 2010 at: http://www.who.int

 

TATALA, S; SVANBERG, U & MDUMA, B. (1998). Low dietary iron availability is a major cause of anemia: a nutrition survey in the Lindi District of Tanzania. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol 68. issue 1. Pp. 171- 178.

 

THE MALARIA VACCINE TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP. (2006). Global Strategy Aims for Effective Malaria Vaccine by 2025. [online]. Last accessed 29th June 2010 at: http://www.malariavaccineroadmap.net

 

TORLESSE, H & HODGES, M. (2000). Anthelminthic treatment and haemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy. The Lancet. vol 356. issue 9235. Pp. 1083.

 

TRAPE, J.F ET AL. (2002). Combating malaria in Africa. Trends in Parasitology, vol 18. issue 5. Pp. 224-230.

 

UNICEF (2004). Low Birthweight: Country, Regional and Global estimates. [online]. Last accessed 28th July 2010 at: http:www.unicef.org

 

UNITED NATIONS WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME (2007). Executive Brief: Tanzania Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis. [online]. Last accessed 27th June at: http://www.documents.wfp.org

 

WHO. (2000). United Republic of Tanzania. [online]. Last accessed 3rd march 2010 at: http://www.who.int

 

WHO (2006). Iron supplementation of young children in regions where malaria transmission is intense and infectious disease highly prevalent. [online]. Last accessed 29th July 2010 at: http://www.idpas.org

 

WHO. (2010). Schistosomiasis. Last accessed 5th July 2010 at: http://www.who.int

 

WHO. (2010) Guidelines for the treatment of malaria, second edition. [online]. Last accessed 6th July 2010 at: http;//www.who.int

 

YARTEY, J.E. (2006). Malaria in pregnancy: Access to effective interventions in Africa. [online]. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, vol 94. issue 3. Pp. 364-373.